Egg quad updating discriminator
Like all vertebrates, fish possess receptors for endocrine hormones and have been used as surrogate vertebrate models to identify compounds with endocrine disrupting activity (Ankley , 2001).
Wild fish are exposed to estrogenic compounds from a variety of sources including domestic sewage effluents, agricultural and feed lot runoff, and industrial wastewaters.
Further, there is a need for diagnostic biomarkers of estrogenic environmental contamination in many wildlife species.
The performance of these biomarkers for detecting estrogenic activity was evaluated by self-validation, and by testing plasma samples from male fish exposed to weak, nonsteroidal estrogen agonists, nonestrogenic chemical stressors, unexposed adult male and adult female minnows.
In addition, an E2 concentration-response study was performed and protein identification of one biomarker was conducted using high-resolution MS.
We show that water exposure of fish to estrogen agonists produces distinct plasma protein biomarkers that can be reproducibly detected at low levels using protein chips and mass spectrometry., 1993; Etienne and Jemmali, 1982; Rotchell and Ostrander, 2003) are termed endocrine disrupting compounds. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a legislative mandate to test an inventory of thousands of chemicals for endocrine disrupting effects (U. Current endocrine testing methods are animal intensive and lack the throughput necessary to screen large number of environmental chemicals for adverse effects.
Such chemicals may be naturally occurring (e.g., hormones in waste water; phytoestrogens such as the soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein; and estrogenic mycotoxins such as zearlenone) or synthetic (e.g., pharmaceuticals such as 17-α-ethinylestradiol; pesticides such as methoxychlor [MXC]; and industrial chemicals such as bisphenol-A [BPA] and alkylphenols). Current assays also analyze for a single endocrine mode of action (MOA) at a time.